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Can In-Vitro Meat Help Me Become the Moral Person I Want to Be?

Karina Barbara Pawlak walks through the moral repercussions of regular meat versus cultured meat in this essay.

Karina Barbara Pawlak is a writer, a stand up comedienne, a powerlifter, and a busy mom of a rambunctious 2 year old. Karina’s concern for animal welfare along with an avid interest in sports nutrition compelled her to research non-meat protein sources. This led to her discovery of in vitro meat. Karina studied philosophy and professional writing at the University of Toronto. She wrote Can In Vitro Meat Help Me Be The Moral Person That I Want To Be? for a research writing course. Karina plans to study Adult Education in graduate school.


 

Me and My Meat

I read MUSCLE&FITNESS1, FITNESS RX2, SHAPE3, and “NUTRITION ACTION”4, and I scan the ScienceDaily5 website for new nutrition news. I spend 18 hours a week in the gym. I’m a member of the U of T weightlifting club. I care about my protein intake.

My target protein intake is 135 grams per day.6 The easiest way for me to reach it, without going over my daily fat target (or more like my limit) of 90 grams,7 is to eat lean meat and low fat dairy products.

  • 60 grams of “CLOVER LEAF Flaked Light Tuna” contains 15 grams of protein, and 0.5 grams of fat8

  • 100 grams of “PRIME Fully Cooked and Sliced” chicken breast contains 24 grams of protein and 2.5 grams of fat9

  • 100 grams of “Certified Angus Roast Beef” contains 21 grams of protein and 3.5 grams of fat10

  • 100 grams of Smoked Steelhead Salmon contains 22 grams of protein and 14 grams of fat (mostly healthy polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat)11

  • One cup (250 grams) of “Natrel fine-filtered 1% m.f. Partly Skimmed Milk” contains 9 grams of protein, and 2.5 grams of fat12

  • ½ cup (125 grams) of “NORDICA 2% COTTAGE CHEESE” contains 14 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat13

Soy is high in protein. 85 grams of “Fresh Tofu” tofu contains 6 grams of protein and 3 grams of fat.14 But I don’t like soy. Eggs are excellent sources of protein too. One egg contains 6 grams of protein. But, one egg also contains 5 grams of fat.15 Egg whites are fat-free but also taste free.16 Beans and nuts are good sources of protein. ½ cup (125 ml) of “UNICO CHICK PEAS” (also known as Garbanzo beans) contains 10 grams of protein and 2 grams of fat.17 But beans bloat. Lifting on a belly full of gas is uncomfortable and so is sleeping. I love nuts. But nuts are fat dense. 23 almonds contain 6 grams of protein and 14 grams of fat.18 Nut fat is mostly monounsaturated heart healthy fat, but half a day’s protein from almonds puts me 67.5 grams over my fat limit.19 67.5 fat grams = 607.5 calories.20 So I eat nuts sparingly.

My ideal diet day looks like this:

Breakfast

  • 2 cups (500mL) of 1% milk: 18 grams of protein, 5 grams of fat

  • ¾ cup (55 grams) of “NATURE’S PATH FLAX PLUS” granola: 6 grams of protein, 10 grams of fat.

TOTAL: Protein: 24 grams. Fat: 15 grams fat.

 

Snack

  • 1 cup (250 mL) of “Source” 0% fat plain yogurt: 10 grams of protein, 0 fat.

  • 23 almonds: 6 grams of protein, 14 grams fat.

  • Fruit: usually a negligible amount of protein and fat

TOTAL: Protein: 16 grams. Fat: 14 grams.

 

Lunch

  • 1 can (120 grams) of “CLOVER LEAF FLAKED LIGHT TUNA”: 30 grams of protein, 1 gram of fat.

  • 2 slices (71 grams) of “DEMPSTER’s 100 % WHOLE WHEAT BREAD”: 7 grams of protein, 2 grams of fat.

  • 1 table spoon (15mL) of “HELLMANN’s REAL MAYONNAISE”: 0.1 grams (negligible) of protein, 10 grams of fat.

TOTAL: Protein: 37.1 grams. Fat: 13 grams.

 

Snack

  • 4 (20 grams) of “DAR•VIDA Original” whole wheat crackers: 2 grams of protein, 2 grams of fat.

  • 30 grams of “Cracker Barrel” Marble cheese: 7 grams of protein, 10 grams of fat.

  • Fruit or Vegetable: usually a negligible amount of protein and fat

TOTAL: Protein: 9 grams. Fat: 12 grams.

 

Dinner

  • 100 grams of “MISURA” whole wheat Fettuccine: 13 grams of protein, 2.5 grams of fat.

  • 2 table spoons (30mL) of “AURORA EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL”: 0 protein, 28 grams of fat.

  • 100 grams of “PRIME Fully Cooked and Sliced” chicken breast: 24 grams of protein, 2.5 grams of fat.

  • Vegetables: usually a negligible amount of protein and fat.

TOTAL. Protein: 37 grams. Fat: 33 grams.

 

Bedtime Snack

  • ½ cup (125 grams) of “NORDICA 2% COTTAGE CHEESE”: 14 grams of protein, 2 grams of fat.

  • Fruit: usually a negligible amount of protein and fat.

TOTAL. Protein: 14 grams. Fat: 2 grams.

 

Daily Total
PROTEIN: 137.1 grams. FAT: 89 grams.21

 

Meat meets my protein needs. But my meat, en route to my plate, fears, cries, hurts, and poisons.

I read on GoVeg.com that “chickens raised for their flesh, called “broilers” by the chicken industry spend their entire lives in filthy sheds with tens of thousands of other birds, where intense crowding and confinement lead to outbreaks of disease. They are bred and drugged to grow so large so quickly that their legs and organs can’t keep up, making heart attacks, organ failure, and crippling leg deformities common. Many become crippled under their own weight and eventually die because they can’t reach the water nozzles. When they are only 6 or 7 weeks old, they are crammed into cages and trucked to slaughter.”22

I also read on GoVeg.com that, “Cattle who survive feedlots, dairy sheds, and veal farms face a hellish trip to the slaughterhouse. The animals are packed onto trucks where they go without food for duration of the journey, which sometimes takes days. In hot weather, many cows collapse in the heat, and in the cold, cows sometimes freeze to the sides of the truck until workers pry them off with crowbars”, and that “Often, frightened animals who don’t want to leave the truck are struck with electric prods or dragged off with chains and forklifts.”23

What about “organic” or “free range”?

“’Organic’ simply means drug- and chemical-free—organic animals can be subjected to all the same types of cruelty that occur in factory farms, and as long as they are not dosed with drugs or fed food that was treated with pesticides, their meat and milk can be labelled ‘organic.’”24

“Birds who are labeled free-range must have access to the outdoors, but access can mean a hole in the shed that goes out to a tiny, fenced-in mud lot.”25

“On organic and free-range farms, most animals are mutilated without the use of painkillers.”26

“Animals on organic [and “free range”] farms often suffer through the same mutilations that occur in factory farms. Cattle have their horns sawed off and their testicles cut out of their scrotums, and they’re held down and branded with sizzling-hot irons, resulting in third-degree burns. Pigs on organic farms may have their tails chopped off and chunks of their ears cut out—and some have rings put into their noses in order to permanently prevent them from rooting in the grass and dirt, which is one of pigs’ favorite pastimes.”27

I read in NUTRITION ACTION that the “excrement” from “the huge and crowded feedlots and pens in which most cattle and virtually all hogs spend a fair part of their lives” pollutes the air, streams, and rivers. Growing food for feedlots: “corn, soybeans, and other grain” requires “huge amounts of water” and “huge amounts of fertilizer”. “Too much of that fertilizer washes into streams. (In the United States, many of those streams empty into the Mississippi River and, eventually, the Gulf of Mexico, where the fertilizer run-off produces oxygen-deficient dead zones). And producing the fertilizer requires huge amounts of energy and generates pollution of its own. Then there’s the environmental cost of shipping the fertilizer, the grain, and the animals”. Plus cattle burp up methane, “a greenhouse gas that is 25 times more destructive than carbon dioxide”.28

“Livestock’s Long Shadow, a 2006 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, estimated that livestock are responsible for 18 percent of all green-house gas emissions worldwide.” This beats the emissions from the entire world transportation sector.29

What about my tuna and my smoked salmon?

“Fish slaughter plants in the U.S. make no effort to stun the fish, who are fully conscious when they start down the slaughter line. Their gills are cut, and they are left to bleed to death, convulsing in pain. Large fish, such as salmon, are sometimes bashed on the head with a wooden bat called a “priest,” and many are seriously injured but still alive and suffering when they are cut open. Smaller fish, like trout, are often killed by simply draining water away and leaving them to slowly suffocate or by packing them in ice while they are still fully conscious. Because fish are cold-blooded, allowing them to suffocate on ice prolongs their suffering, leaving them to experience excruciating pain for as long as 15 minutes before they die.”30 31

What about “wild” fish?

“Commercial fishing boats leave their ports in pursuit of specific species of fish, but their hooks and nets bring up thousands of pounds of other marine animals as well. Sharks, sea turtles, birds, seals, whales, and other nontarget fish who get tangled in nets and hooked by long-lines are termed “bycatch” and are thrown overboard. They fall victim to swarming birds or slowly bleed to death in the water. Scientists recently found that nearly 1,000 marine mammals—dolphins, whales, and porpoises—die each day after they are caught in fishing nets. By some estimates, shrimp trawlers discard as much as 85 percent of their catch, making shrimp arguably the most environmentally destructive fish flesh a person can consume.”32

I admit: I can meet my protein needs without meat.

I can replace all instances of meat with more skim dairy. But “cows raised for their milk are repeatedly impregnated. Their babies are taken away so that humans can drink the milk intended for the calves. When their exhausted bodies can no longer provide enough milk, they are sent to slaughter and ground up for hamburgers”33. So is the switch even worth the bother?

I can replace all instances of meat with a vegetable protein powder like ULTIMATE NUTRION’s wheat protein isolate powder.34

But: I love my meat! I love my almond sliver caked baked chicken breast, and I love my broccollini, red onion, mushroom and beef strip stir-fry, and I love my spicy salmon sushi rolls.

But do I really want to be the kind of person who knowingly contributes to the suffering of sentient beings and the desecration of our environment just to satisfy her craving?

In Vitro Meat

Edible meat is skeletal muscle tissue.

In 1931, Winston Churchill in his Essay, “Fifty Years Hence”, stated that “We shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing, by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium.”35

In 2001, bioengineer Morris Benjaminson and his team at Tuoro College in New York, grew goldfish muscle tissue in culture.36 NASA funded the experiment as part of its ongoing research on creating portable means for palatable food production in space. Benjaminson’s team sliced goldfish muscle tissue into chunks, “minced and centrifuged them to form pellets”,37 and immersed them in fetal bovine serum. Fetal bovine serum, rich in cell nurturing proteins, is the standard growth medium for cell cultures.38 The tissue grew 14% in 7 days. Then Benjaminson’s team marinated the tissue in olive oil, garlic, lemon, and pepper, and fried it. The fried “fillets” were then presented to colleagues from other departments. The “fillets” passed for fish. They “looked like fish and smelled like fish”, said Benjaminson. Nobody was allowed to taste it.39 Benjaminson also tried to grow the goldfish muscle in a liquid mushroom extract. The tissue survived for a week but did not grow.40

In 2004, Jason Matheny,41 a researcher at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, founded New Harvest,42 a not-for-profit organization for promoting research into in vitro meat. New Harvest is comprised of international scientists in biology, agriculture, public health, and medicine.

On April 9-11, 2008, the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and the Norwegian Food Research Institute hosted the first international conference on the production of in vitro meat.43 Jason Matheny said that “the meeting was very encouraging” and that “the general consensus is that a ground meat product like sausage or hamburger is both technically and economically feasible in the near-term”.44

On April 21, 2008, PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), announced a $1 million prize “to the first successful individual, group, or company”, that “produces an in vitro chicken-meat product that has a taste and texture indistinguishable from real chicken flesh to non-meat-eaters and meat-eaters alike”, and manufactures “the approved product in large enough quantities to be sold commercially, and successfully sell it at a competitive price in at least 10 U.S. States”.45 PETA picked “$1 million” because approximately one million chickens are killed in the United States every hour.46 The deadline for submission is June 30, 2012.

In November of 2009, Dutch scientists announced that they grew “meat” in vitro. Mark Post’s team at Eindhoven University of Technology, cultured cells extracted from the muscle of a live pig in pig fetus serum and produced a 1cm unvascularized bloodless white meat mound. Post said that it looked “like a piece of scallop”. No one was allowed to taste it.47 Post estimates that a dinner sized “pork-meat-mound-chop” would take about 30 days.48 The Dutch government and Stegman.49 A sausage manufacturer, funded Post’s research as part of an in vitro meat project started in April of 2005 between the University of Amsterdam, the Eindhoven University of Technology, and Ultrecht University.50

Presently New Harvest funds research into developing animal-free growth formulas. Animal serum is expensive and contains risk of contaminating a cell culture with animal diseases like BSE (Bovine spongiform encephalopathy). New Harvest founder Jason Matheny says that “The most promising approach to producing this medium is to use microalgae, which are photosynthetic organisms even more efficient than plants. We recently funded some research at Oxford University to examine how meat cultured with this medium compares to conventional meat in terms of energy impact, and the study showed that it uses 90 percent less land and water, all while producing 80% fewer greenhouse emissions.”51 Research into animal-free culture medium for in vitro meat is conducted at the University of Amsterdam. Development of animal-free cell culture growth formulas is also conducted by culture media supply companies like Invitrogen,52 and SAFC Biosciences.53 54

So, when will eco-friendly kill-free “pork” hit my supermarket?

“Right now, in vitro meat is produced on a very small lab scale with lots of PhD labour, using a culture medium that is taken from scientific suppliers”, says Jason Matheny. “The biggest hurdle is making the growth process as cheap as possible at an industrial scale. That involves automating all the steps so that you don’t have to have lots of skilled labour involved, and producing a culture medium cheaply…”55

Matheny predicts that the technology to produce animal serum free in-vitro meat on a large scale is 5-10 years away.56 The first in vitro meat will appear in “ground” form. The technology to grow a vascularized slab of meat like chicken breast or steak does not yet exist. The technology may arrive soon. Tissue engineers have already grown bladders,57 windpipes,58 blood vessels,59 rabbit penises,60 and parts of other organs61 in vitro. “But right now about half the world’s meat is ground meat, and that share is growing due to more people eating processed food,”62 Matheny says, “so we should start there.”63 Matheny says that matching the taste and texture of ground meats: sausage, hot dogs, hamburgers, chicken nuggets, and SPAM, – “In 2007, the seven billionth can of Spam was sold”64 – will not be difficult. “Both conventional and cultured meat is made of muscle tissue. And conventional ground meat is typically highly processed. Chicken nuggets for instance, are made of something called ‘meat slurry’- it would be hard not to do better”.65

So, can in vitro meat help me be the moral person that I want to be?

It is possible to biopsy muscle cells from living animals without killing or hurting them.66 “With a single cell, you could theoretically produce the world’s annual meat supply”, says Matheny.67

No feedlots. No slaughterhouses. No crying, screaming, writhing, fearing, or dying animals.

PETA spokesman Bruce Friedrich says that in vitro meat “would be the best thing for vegetarians since sliced bread”. “Once you grow meat in a lab, you’re no longer talking about individuals with interest, you’re talking about a slab of flesh no more sentient than tofu”.68 Peter Singer, author of the 1975 treatise Animal Liberation69, agrees. Singer thinks that in vitro meat would be a good thing in the “same way that I think it’s good that the abuse of horses for pulling loads has ended…I think it would be good if the abuse of animals for raising them for meat were to end, because we had a technological solution to that. We had an alternative.”70

New Harvest says that, “cultured meat production should be more efficient than conventional meat production in its use of energy, land, and water; and it should produce less waste”.71 No methane burps. No manure lagoons. “I actually think the carbon footprint of this will be around 10 percent of the carbon footprint of conventional meat”, says Matheny. “We could absolutely go without fossil fuels throughout the entire process and rely on solar energy or wind or geothermal or whatever”.72

Plus in vitro meat “has the potential to be…safer”, says New Harvest. “Strict quality control rules that are impossible to introduce in modern animal farms, slaughterhouses, or meat packing plants” can reduce or even eliminate the transmission of meat borne pathogens likeSalmonella, Campylobacter, pathogenic E. Coli, Avian influenza, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and listeria.73 In vitro meat “would be the cleanest meat ever produced” says Matheny.74

Plus “the fat content” of in vitro meat can be manipulated to “produce beef with the fat content of salmon or avocado”, says Matheny. “So, in principle, cultured meat could give you hamburgers that prevented heart attacks rather than causing them”.76 77

In conclusion: if no sentient beings suffer or die in the production of in vitro meat, and if in vitro meat “uses 90 percent less land and water, all while producing 80% fewer greenhouse emissions”,78 and if in vitro meat is safer to eat then regular meat, then “yes” in vitro meat can help me be the moral person I want to be (or a person morally closer to the moral person that I want to be) if I substitute it for my regular meat.79

Not everyone thinks of in vitro meat as a moral alternative to regular meat. In the next chapter I will address the most common objections to in vitro meat.

 

Objections To In Vitro Meat

In vitro meat is not natural and therefore wrong

“The most common objection I’ve heard to cultured meat is that it’s unnatural” says Matheny.80

The argument is: What is natural is good. What is unnatural is wrong. In vitro meat is unnatural. Therefore in vitro meat is wrong.

But what does natural mean? How do I distinguish “natural” from “unnatural”?

If “natural” means “that which comes from nature”, then in vitro meat is “natural” by virtue of being a by product of a being that emerged from nature, just like a beaver’s dam, a stork’s nest, or a mole’s tunnels.

If “natural” means “that which is not created by human beings”, then in vitro meat, a man-made product, is unnatural. But then so is cheese, yogurt, bread, wine,81 hydroponic vegetables, vaccines, medicines, cars, computers, and factory farming.82

So, either all of my actions are “natural” and automatically “good”, or all of my actions are “unnatural” and automatically “wrong”. So, how can the designation “natural” inform me as to what I morally “ought” to do? It cannot.83 The term “natural” is a morally irrelevant term.

Therefore the objection “in vitro meat is not natural and therefore wrong” is meaningless.

Creating in vitro meat is playing God and therefore wrong

“Please, let’s get our animal protein needed for bodily functions the way God intended…from animals”, posted Melissa Hart in response to “Test Tube Meat”, by Sarah DiGregorio.84

“We should not play God with nature”, posted Iris to the same article.85

The argument is: It is wrong to play God. Creating in vitro meat is playing God. Therefore in vitro meat is wrong.

What does it mean to “play God”? Is growing kidneys in a lab to save lives playing God? Is condemning a gladiator to death playing God? To me, both actions fit the definition of “playing God” (if anything does). But one I think of as morally good, and the other as morally reprehensible. So, I don’t think that “playing God” meets the criteria for a moral judgement, but how I “play God”.

So, in vitro meat cannot be “wrong” simply because it’s a result of “playing God”.

In vitro meat is wrong because it may lead to cannibalism

“Of course here’s an ethical issue. If we can synthesise beef, lamb and chicken, will we take it to the next level and start to synthesise koala or platypus meat? Would anything stop us from synthesising human meat to eat?” posted “Karen” in response to “In vitro meat – Would you eat hamburger from the lab?” by Paula Goodyer.86

“Why stop with synthetic chicken? Why not a synthetic human steak? You could even offer a service where gourmets could specify from which human the steak should be. A close relative? Maybe a dead relative? Or a celebrity? An enemy?” posted Krystian Majewski in response to “Artificial Blood: Coming To A Hospital Near You?” by Amy Barth.87

The argument is: Cannibalism is wrong. Eating human muscle tissue is cannibalism. Growing in vitro meat from animal muscle tissue may lead to growing in vitro meat from human tissue. In vitro meat may lead to cannibalism. Therefore in vitro meat is wrong.

This is a “slippery slope” argument. The “slippery slope fallacy involves constructing a scenario in which one thing leads ultimately to an end so extreme that the first step should never be taken”.88

But if growing in vitro meat results in someone somewhere sometime growing “human” meat, will it be really wrong?

April 1, 2008, PETA posted:

“We’re launching Newkirk Nuggets™ (patent pending), a cutting edge (and surprisingly delicious) animal-meat alternative created by cloning cells from an upper arm biopsy of PETA President Ingrid Newkirk who is “100% free range, grain fed, white meat.”89

Yes, it was an April Fool’s joke (PETA posts one every year). But, Ingrid Newkirk says that PETA posted this, “to make the point that flesh addiction is revolting – and if I am healthier, as I am, than the average animal used for meat, and giving my flesh voluntarily, why is this revolting but eating flesh from a probably gut-infected, tumour-laden chicken or cow is not?”90

What if someone extracted (painlessly) my muscle cells and grew “Karina in vitro meat” and ate it? Would I feel cannibalized? What if a “spiritual” connection exists between me and my muscle cells? Can you eating “Karina in vitro meat” hurt me in a yet unknown way? It is possible. But this idea is too abstract to inform a moral judgement on eating “human in vitro meat”.

But the “in vitro meat is wrong because it may lead to cannibalism” argument can be pushed further down the slope: Growing in vitro meat from animal muscle tissue may lead to growing in vitro meat from human tissue and this may lead to people acquiring a taste for human flesh and eventually lead to full out cannibalism and murder. Do I need to explain why this is absurd?

What is not absurd is the argument that eating animal flesh hurts sentient beings and is therefore immoral.

So, I don’t think that the argument, “in vitro meat is wrong because it may lead to cannibalism”, is serious or significant enough to discourage growing in vitro meat on moral grounds, especially in comparison to the argument that “eating animal flesh hurts sentient beings and is therefore immoral”.

But where will all the cows go?

More than 50% of my friends, in response to in vitro meat, asked, “but where will the cows go?”91

“And what happens to all the animals that are being bred for food if people stop eating them????????” posted “Me” in response to “In vitro meat – Would you eat hamburger from the lab?” by Paula Goodyer.92

Dacey, in Vegetarian Meat, writes, “Suppose that meat culturing prevails, and the meat industry is in effect discontinued. What would happen to all these animals? Livestock animals have been bred for their dependence on human beings, and would fare poorly without this ongoing husbandry. In North America, to take one example, livestock animals are not former members of non-human ecosystems into which they could be integrated once having been released from their use as food. One can easily imagine scenarios of mass deprivation, death, and ecological disruption resulting from the shift to a meat culture world.”93

“This objection depends on the implausible empirical assumption that the transition from an animal-based to a cultured meat economy would take place suddenly and without warning,” Dacey writes. “It is much more plausible to suppose that it would take a generation or more, and that for extended periods of time, cultured meat and animal meat would co-exist in the marketplace. So long as these markets exist, cattle, chicken, pigs, and so on will be valuable commodities, and hence no rational owners would discard them as waste. During this transitional period, there would be plenty of time for a deliberate restructuring of the industry and the practices of husbandry that make it possible. Presumably the breeding and sale of livestock animals could decline in a predictable fashion in response to changing consumer demand. The most likely scenario, therefore, is that the population of livestock animals would decrease because of a diminishing rate of replacement of slaughtered animals by new animals, eventually ending in a situation in which no new animals are born for slaughter”.94

Does this mean that farm animals are doomed to extinction? “Nothing in the cultured meat proposal requires that cows, chickens, pigs, and so on be allowed to pass into extinction. In many cases, they might continue to be used in humane dairy production, or as something like pets or companion animals”, Dacey writes.95

So, there is no need to worry about where the cows will go.

Conclusion 

The moral repercussions of regular meat outweigh the possible moral consequences of in vitro meat. Switching to in vitro meat makes moral sense.

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Laboratory-Grown Replacement of Penile Erectile Tissue In Animals Suggests Potential to Benefit Patients”, 11/10/2009.
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Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Centre’s Institute for Regenerative Medicine “Wake Forest Physician Reports First Human Recipients of Laboratory-Grown Organs”, 4/3/2006.
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Wikipedia. www.wikipedia.org
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wikipedia.org/wiki/Spam_(food)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Singer
wikipedia.org/wiki/Tissue_culture

Wilson, Mark, “Interview With Dr. Atala”, GIZMODO, Nov 12, 2009.
gizmodo.com/5402485/your-next-body-is-growing-in-a-lab-right-n

1. “MUSCLE&FITNESS” and “MUSCLE&FITNESS hers” are US magazines dedicated to body building and fitness.
muscleandfitness.com, www.muscleandfitnesshers.com

2. “FITNESS RX” is a US Woman’s Fitness magazine

3. www.fitnessrxmag.com
“SHAPE” is a US Woman’s Fitness magazine. shape.com

4. “NUTRITION ACTION” is a health and nutrition newsletter published by The Centre for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a not-for-profit health-advocacy group. There is both a US and Canadian edition.
www.cspinet.org/nah/canada.htm (Canadian website). www.cspinet.org/nah(US website).

5. www.sciencedaily.com/news

6. To maintain muscle mass for strength/power athletes (like weightlifters or powerlifters), sports nutritionists recommend 1.6 to 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight.
Shepherd, John. Sports Training The Complete Guide (Richmond Hill: Firefly Books Ltd, 2007), 193.

7. This is based on my target (or limit) of 2800 calories per day (which unfortunately I usually go over). My diet is divided into approximately 20% protein, 50% to 60% carbohydrate, and 20% -30% fat (of mostly unsaturated fat). For individual needs I recommend consulting a professional nutritionist of dietician (a sports nutritionist or sports dietician for athletes).

8. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a can of “CLOVER LEAF Flaked Light Tuna”.

9. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel of a package of “PRIME Fully Cooked and Sliced” chicken breast.

10. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel of a package of “Certified Angus Roast Beef”.

11.As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel of a package of “FOSSEN Fjord Fish”.

12. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a carton of “Natrel fine-filtered 1% m.f. Partly Skimmed Milk”.

13. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a container of “NORDICA 2% COTTAGE CHEESE”.

14. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a package of “Fresh Tofu”.

15. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a package of “NATUREGG ORGANIC” eggs.

16. Approximately 2 egg whites contain 7 grams of protein and 0 grams of fat.

17. As stated on the “Nutrition Facts” panel on a can of “UNICO CHICK PEAS”.

18. Spano, Marie, “Nutritious Nuts”, MUSCLE&FITNESS hers, Nov/Dec 2009.

19. ½ days protein = 67.5 grams (135÷2=67.5). 67.5÷6 (grams of protein in 23 almonds) = 11.25 (number of servings of 6 grams in a day’s worth of protein). 11.24 x 14 (grams of fat in a serving of 23 almonds) = 157.5 grams.
157.5 – 90(my daily fat limit) = 67.5.

20. A gram of fat = 9 calories. 1 gram of protein = 4 calories. 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories.

21. My daily carbohydrate target is 350 grams. The granola, bread, crackers, pasta, and fruit and vegetables amount to approximately 350 grams.

22. http://www.goveg.com/factoryFarming_chickens.asp

23. http://www.goveg.com/factoryFarming_cows.asp

24. http://www.goveg.com/organic_products.asp

25. http://www.goveg.com/organic_freerange.asp

26. http://www.goveg.com/organic.asp

27. http://www.goveg.com/organic_products.asp

28. Jacobson, Michael F. “MEMO FROM MFJ. Livestock’s Long Shadow”, Nutrition Action Health Letter, June 2009. Pg. 2.

29. Ibid.

30. http://www.fishinghurts.com/fishFarms2.asp

31. Overwhelming evidence shows that “yes” fish do feel pain. “Dr. Donald Broom, scientific advisor to the British government, explains, “The scientific literature is quite clear. Anatomically, physiologically and biologically, the pain system in fish is virtually the same as in birds and mammals.”
http://www.fishinghurts.com/FishFeelPain.asp
New research from the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science “on pain and nociception (physiological detection of stimuli that can cause tissue damage) in fish”, further suggests that fish experience the sensation that we know as “pain”.
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, “Do Fish Feel Pain? Norwegian Research Suggests They Can.” ScienceDaily, January 15, 2010.
http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2010/01/100112090126.htm.

32. http://www.fishinghurts.com/CommercialFishing.asp

33. http://www.goveg.com/factoryFarming_Cows_Dairy.asp

34. “Wheat protein offers all the benefits of dairy based proteins without any of the lactose and cholesterol. Additionally, it is suitable for use by vegan athletes. Wheat protein also offers a higher Glutamic Acid level than many comparable dairy based protein shakes. Ultimate Nutrition Protein Isolate is fortified with digestive enzymes for optimal nutrient absorption!”
http://www.muscleandstrength.com/store/ultimate-nutrition-protein-isolate.html

35. Churchill, Winston. “Fifty Years Hence”. December 1931.
www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1914

36. “Tissue culture is the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, while the more specific term plant tissue culture is being named for the plants.” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tissue_culture

37. Hopkins PD, Dacey A. Vegetarian Meat. (J Agric Environ Ethics, 2008) 21:579-596.

38. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetal_bovine_serum

39. A “new” food product requires FDA approval before it is distributed for consumption.

40. Sample, Ian. “Growing fish fingers in space”, New Scientist March 23, 2002.http://www.newscientist.com

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jason_Matheny

42. www.new-harvest.org

43. invitromeat.org

44. DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008.blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

45. www.peta.org/feat_in_vitro_contest.asp

46. blog.peta.org/archives/2008/04/lab_meat_tastes.php

47. Cathal, Kelly, “Dutch scientists grow meat, see end to factory farming”, thestar.com, December 04, 2009.

48. “Pork Grown in Petri Dish”, Impact Lab, January 16th, 2010.
www.impactlab.com/2010/01/16/pork-grown-in-a-petri-dish

49. Stegman is “a sausage subsidiary of food giant Sara Lee”.
Ford, Matt, “In-vitro meat: Would lab-burgers be better for us and the planet?” EcoSolutions, Sat August 8, 2009
www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/08/07/eco.invitro.meat

50. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vitro_meat

51. Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in-vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

52. www.invitrogen.com

53. www.bioresearchonline.com/ecommcenters/safcbiosciences.html

54. Aldridge, Susan, “Cell culture must go vegetarian”, Pharmaceutical Technology Europe
Volume 19, Issue 2. Feb 1, 2007.
http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=408851

55. Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in-vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

56. DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008. blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

57. In 2006, Dr. Anthony Atala and his team at the Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Centre’s Institute for Regenerative Medicine grew bladders from patients’ cells and grafted the new bladders onto the patients’ existing bladders. “Atala reported that the bladders showed improved function over time — with some patients being followed for more than seven years”.
“Wake Forest Physician Reports First Human Recipients of Laboratory-Grown Organs”, 4/3/2006.
www.wfubmc.edu/wfirm

58. In 2008, “Surgeons in Spain have carried out the world’s first tissue-engineered whole organ transplant – using a windpipe made with the patient’s own stem cells”.

59. Roberts, Michelle, “Windpipe transplant breakthrough”, BBC News, November 19, 2008.
news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/health/7735696.stm
In 2010, Dr. Stephen E. McIlhenny and colleagues, at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, grew functional blood vessels using adult stem cells. “The National Institutes of Health and the American Heart Association funded the study”.
American Heart Association (2010, April 9), “Tissue-engineered grafts composed of adult stem cells could one day replace synthetic vascular bypass grafts”. ScienceDaily, April 10, 2010.
http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2010/04/100408181653.htm

60. In November 2009, Dr. Anthony Atala and his team at the Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Centre’s Institute for Regenerative Medicine grew rabbit penises from rabbit cells and grafted the new penises onto rabbits that had their penises removed. “When the animals with the engineered tissue mated with females, vaginal swabs contained sperm in eight of 12 instances and four of the 12 females were impregnated”.
Laboratory-Grown Replacement of Penile Erectile Tissue In Animals Suggests Potential to Benefit Patients”, 11/10/2009.
www.wfubmc.edu/wfirm

61. Dr. Anthony Atala and his team “are currently working to engineer 22 different tissues and organs in the laboratory, including blood vessels, heart valves, bone, muscle, kidneys, livers”. Dr. Atala foresees “a future when organs will be available off-the-shelf, ready to “plug in” and replace injured or diseased organs”.
Wilson, Mark, “Interview With Dr. Atala”, GIZMODO, Nov 12, 2009.
gizmodo.com/5402485/your-next-body-is-growing-in-a-lab-right-now

62. Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in-vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

63. DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008. blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

64. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spam_(food)

65. Ford, Matt, “In-vitro meat: Would lab-burgers be better for us and the planet?”, EcoSolutions, Sat August 8, 2009
www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/science/08/07/eco.invitro.meat

66. Some discomfort may be unavoidable, although anesthetic can make it negligible (especially in comparison to the way farm animals suffer now).

68. Temple, James, “The Future of Food: The No-kill Carnivore”, Dual Perspectives, February 23, 2009.
http://www.portfolio.com/views/columns/dual-perspectives/

69. Animal Liberationwas published in 1975 (Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals, New York: New York review/Random House, 1975, ISBN 0-394-40096-8; second edition, 1990, ISBN 0-940322-00-5.).
Animal Liberation “has been cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement. The central argument of the book is an expansion of the utilitarian idea that ‘the greatest good of the greatest number’ is the only measure of good or ethical behaviour. Singer argues that there is no reason not to apply this to other animals. He introduced and popularized the term “speciesism“, which was originally coined by Richard D. Ryder, to describe the practice of privileging humans over animals”.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Singer
Peter Singer has a website: www.princeton.edu/~psinger

70. Ketzel, Levine, “Lab-Grown Meat a Reality, But Who Will Eat It?” National Public Radio, May 20, 2008.
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90235492

71. http://www.new-harvest.org/faq.htm

72. Bendrick, Lou, “Meet Shmeat”, Healthy Living, March 2009.

http://commongroundmag.com/lime/2009/03/healthyliving0903.html
73. http://www.new-harvest.org/faq.htm

74. MacKay, Fiona, “Looking for a Solution to Cow’s Climate Problem”, The New York Times, November 16, 2009.
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/17/business/global/17iht-rbofcows.html

75. Gelt, Jason, “In vitro meat’s evolution”, Los Angeles Times, January 27, 2010.
http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jan/27/news/la-bx-science-meat27-2010jan2

76. Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in-vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

77. “A new study [2010] by researchers at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) provides the first conclusive evidence from randomized clinical trials that people who replace saturated fat [found in beef and other animal fat] in their diet with polyunsaturated fat [like the omega-3 fat in salmon] reduce their risk of coronary heart disease by 19%, compared with control groups of people who do not.”
Harvard School of Public Health, “Replacing Saturated Fat With Polyunsaturated Fat May Cut Heart Disease Risk”, ScienceDaily, March 23, 2010.
http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2010/03/100322211831.htm
“High avocado intake has been shown to have an effect on blood serum cholesterol levels. Specifically, after a seven-day diet rich in avocados, hypercholesterolemia patients showed a 17% decrease in total serum cholesterol levels. These subjects also showed a 22% decrease in both LDL (harmful cholesterol) and triglyceride levels and 11% increase in HDL (helpful cholesterol) levels.” (Lopez Ledesma, R; Frati Munari, A C : Hernandez Dominguez, B C : Cervantes Montalvo, S : Hernandez Luna, M H : Juarez, C : Moran Lira, S (1996 Winter). “Monounsaturated fatty acid (avocado) rich diet for mild hypercholesterolemia”. Arch-Med-Res. 27 (4): 519–23. PMID 8987188)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avocado

78. As predicted by the Oxford University study funded by New Harvest.
Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in-vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

79. Tissue culture technology may also one day allow me to be a moral leather and fur wearer.
“Tissue-engineered skin for medical applications and drug toxicity is already a clinically proven reality… The epidermis stem cells have been isolated and growth of hair in vitro in cell culture has been demonstrated”.
V Mironov, T Trusk , V Kasyanov , S Little , R Swaja, R Markwald, “Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm”, Biofabrication Volume 1, Number 2, June 10, 2009. Pg. 10. “9.3. Animal-free leather and fur production”.http://iopscience.iop.org/1758-5090/1/2/022001/
Perhaps it may even be possible to grow fur from extinct species from excavated DNA. Imagine: a saber tooth tiger coat or a woolly mammoth coat for a Canadian winter.

80. DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008. blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

81. Bread, cheese, yogurt, and wine, “all involve processing ingredients derived from natural sources”.
http://www.new-harvest.org/faq.htm

82. “It’s not natural to genetically breed chickens to have growth rates two to three times that of normal chickens, then put 10,000 of them in a metal shed, pump them full of growth-promoting drugs, and have them live in their own wastes”, says Matheny.
Billings, Lee, “Why In-Vitro Meat is Good for You”, SEED Magazine, August 31, 2009.
seedmagazine.com/content/article/why_in–vitro_meat_is_good_for_you

83. The argument “it’s unnatural and therefore immoral” is used so often. I heard it used against homosexuality, against vegetarianism, against abortion, and even against receiving vaccinations. Its premise is that virtue=nature. But how do you determine what is “natural”? And how do you determine that that which is natural is that which is moral? I think that maybe the objection “it’s unnatural” is a visceral reaction to something new. The something new can be “good” like a new fertility treatment or “bad” like a new way to break chick’s beaks off. Both can elicit the “it’s unnatural” objection, but the morality of either is not related to its supposed “naturalness” or lack thereof.

84. Melissa Hart posted, “This sounds like an April Fool’s joke…maybe it should be. Please, let’s get our animal protein needed for bodily functions the way God intended…from animals.” on Thursday, Apr. 17 2008 @ 1:38PM in response to: DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008. blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

85. “Iris” posted, “This is horrific! Think of the deaths with genetically altered corn that got into the human food chain. (the very corn we are feeding to cows) We are what we eat.
We should not play God with nature. The reason beef has become harmful is because we feed cows grain instead of grass – they are not designed to eat grain. With grass fed beef the fats created are omega 3. With grain fed beef 50% of the fat is saturated.” on Friday, Apr. 18 2008 @ 2:02PM, in response to: DiGregorio, Sarah, “Test Tube Meat?”, Edible News. April 15, 2008. blogs.villagevoice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2008/04/test_tube_meat_1.php

86. “Karen” posted, “In many ways it sounds likethis process is similar to human blood donation (or egg, sperm or bone marrow donation). This process doesn’t dehumanise the human source in any way.
Of course here’s an ethical issue. If we can synthesise beef, lamb and chicken, will we take it to the next level and start to synthesise koala or platypus meat? Would anything stop us from synthesising human meat to eat?” on May 20, 2009 @ 2:21 PM, in response to: Goodyer, Paula, “In vitro meat – Would you eat hamburger from the lab?”, theage.com, May 18, 2009, 2:25pm.
http://blogs.theage.com.au/lifestyle/chewonthis/archives/2009/05/in_vitro_meat_w.html

87. “Krystian Majewski” posted, “Why stop with synthetic chicken? Why not a synthetic human steak? You could even offer a service where gourmets could specify from which human the steak should be. A close relative? Maybe a dead relative? Or a celebrity? An enemy?” on September 24th, 2008 at 11:36 am, in response to: Barth, Amy, “Artificial Blood: Coming To A Hospital Near You?”, DISCOVER, September 22nd, 2008.<
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/sciencenotfiction/2008/09/22/artificial-blood-coming-to-a-hospital-near-you/

88 Shermer, Michael. Why People Believe Weird Things (New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1997). Pg. 58.
It is easy to make a “slippery slope” argument with the opposite conclusion. For example: Cannibalism is wrong. Killing animals for food may lead to killing human beings for food. In vitro meat does not require killing animals for food. If we don’t switch to in vitro meat we may soon start killing each other for food. Therefore it is our moral obligation to develop in vitro meat in order to prevent cannibalism.

89. http://blog.peta.org/archives/Newkirk_Nuggets.jpg

90. Midgley, Carol, “Is in vitro meat the future?”, The Times, May 9, 2008.
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/features/article3894871.ece

91. 7 out of 12 people (friends and family members) that I talked to about in vitro meat asked me “what will happen” to all the farm animals.

92. “Me” posted, “Why can’t we just go back to basics we consume too much as it is i doubt this will make any difference in the third world, just like genetically engineered crops. I wouldnt eat it.
And what happens to all the animals that are being bred for food if people stop eating them????????”, on June 13, 2009 @ 3:53 PM, in response to: Goodyer, Paula, “In vitro meat – Would you eat hamburger from the lab?”, theage.com, May 18, 2009, 2:25pm.
http://blogs.theage.com.au/lifestyle/chewonthis/archives/2009/05/in_vitro_meat_w.html

93. Hopkins PD, Dacey A. Vegetarian Meat. (J Agric Environ Ethics, 2008) 21:579-596. Pg. 590.

94. Hopkins PD, Dacey A. Vegetarian Meat. (J Agric Environ Ethics, 2008) 21:579-596. Pg. 590.

95. Ibid.